Published on February 28th, 2019 | by Eaalim Institute | Views: 407
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The next ayah says ,
( “summa radadna’a hu asfala sa’fileen”)
Then WE lowered him..
“We rejected him and lowered him to the
lowest of the low”
(Arabic of tafseer)
There is a group of mufasiroon that say that
the meaning of being reduced to the lowest
of the low is
we reaching the oldest age. Reaching old old
age. In other words…
And Some even explain this. They say that
in old age, an animal is still good for work.
An old donkey ,
you can still put stuff on him, until he dies
you can work him (make him work) . But a man
, when he
becomes old,he becomes useless, he is a burden
on people around him, he cant even take care
himself. Animals can do that till the day
they die .
So if an animal is a low, he is even lower
But if you look at the context… other mufasiroons
If you look at the context, the context of
the Surah is not the physical creation of
human being. It’s the
moral , the ethical. The soul is what made
him so high. So , doesn’t make sense to mention
the low and
weakness of the body.
What is the weakness now?
Spiritual weakness! Ethical , Moral weakness
is being talked about.
And this lowest of the low is very very powerful
Let’s take it bit by bit.
The first word is , “Summa”!
But we will come to summa at the end.
We will start with radadna first.
In Arabic , “ radadna” can be translated
to: “to return . to reject, to lower”.
Somebody gave you something, you didn’t accept
You rejected him and lowered him . That’s
the idea. OK?
Now In Arabic, “to reject” can also be
“aqlama” (to change something completely),
could be “sarafa”,
(to turn something away), walla (to turn one’s
face ) , lafata( to tilt slightly towards
Many different words for returning.
This one word, what does it mean? “Ar-Radd”!
It means to reject something based on the
fact that it’s unacceptable.
That’s what radd means.
Radadna means Allah rejected the human being
because he himself became unacceptable. He
Allah created him in the best possible fashion.
And then he did something that made him basically
loose that license and as a result , Allah
him and once he rejected him, where did he
ن ر ن د س دننا ه ه أن س سفن
ن ل ن سا ل فللي ن ن (Radadna hu
Now , asfal means the lowest, right?
Now , this word is used in Arabic, interestingly,
As-sifla is used for low or wretched people
.Dirty people! Nasty people !
People you don’t wanna associate with. …You
I don’t mean lower class economically but
, I mean lower class socially.
Like moral .
These are not the kind of people , the riff-raff…You
don’t wanna be around !
Their language , their demeanor, their morals!
You don’t want to be around them.
This is as sufla ,in Arabic.
Allah says he reduced him to the lowest of
By the way; this was , “asfal = the lowest”
Safil means something that is low on the basis
of its status, its position, its dignity.
Its meant to be low and inferior. Its meant
to be low and inferior.
Now, we know that Allah created the human
being above everything else.
So much so ,that even angels had to do sajda.
Allah himself says
ن و ن ح ن ملسننا ه ه س م ل
في السبن لم ر ن والسبن س
ح ل رwa hamalna hum fee albarri wa al-bahr
(after He said, We honored the son of Adam),
We Gave him power over the land and the sea.
He says everything on the earth was created
ه ه ن و المن ل ذي ن خلنقنلنكهم
(hu wa al azi kahalaqa la kum)
Everything on the earth was created “for”
من ما ل في السأن س ر ل ض ن
ج ل مي ع عا
ma fil ardi jamee’an (Baqarah 2:29)
Whatever’s on the earth altogether, was made
So who’s higher on the earth? The human being!
And everything else is lower than him.
The cat, the dog , the car , the building.
Everything is beneath us. Everything is at
our service on this
earth. So these things are low and we are
Now Allah says, we made him,( because of his
unacceptable behavior), we made him , what?
lowest of the low!
So the human being became even lower than
the things that he was designed higher than.
Now how does this work?
We were supposed to worship Allah. When somebody
gets rejected , what do they worship?
Other than Allah!
They worship the tree, they worship the sun,
they worship the rock. Whatever they worship
Aren’t those things lower than themselves?
They bring themselves lower than something
that is meant to be low. They become “asfala
They lower themselves before that which is
inherently low. That’s how they reduce themselves.
Another meaning of “asfala safileen” is
Is that animals, ( and we talked about how
modern thought has made, has reduced human
animals. I wish that much was true. Its gone
even worse. Its gone even worse.)
Animal, when does an animal strive? When does
an animal attack?
If it’s scared, if it’s hungry, right?
You know, I was watching a documentary. These
sharks, they feed them, they feed them ,feed
When they are full ..when they consume maximum…they
wont munch ..
Why? Because they are full.
But this human being, when he gets really
low..even animals don’t strike when their
stomach is full.
But the human being will continue to rob and
continue to steal….continue to kill….
The animal will stop attacking when the danger
is over. But this human being will continue
and continue to kill. And these animals will
not ever do things that the human beings , you
them do it.You will see them kill children,
you will see them engage in genocide, you
will see them
engage in horrific horrific acts that you
can never imagine even on an animal. You can
those things on an animal. So if the animals
are low, what does the human being now become?
The lowest of the low!! The lowest of the
Then some mufASirroon say No, this is actually
talking about the hellfire.
That, if Allah had honored the human being
and he still wasn’t able to live up to this,
to this honor that
Allah gave him, then he should be reduced
to the lowest pits of the hellfire…
Like Allah says about the hypocrites. (May
Allah Not make us from them).
ل إ من ن الس ه مننا ل ف ل
قي ن ن ل في ال من د س ر ل ك
السأن س سفن ل ل
(Inna almunafiqeena fee alddarki al-asfal)
ل في ال من د س ر ل ك السأن
س سفن ل ل ل م ن ن النمنا ل
(fee alddarki al-asfali mina alnnar) (Quran
“No doubt, the hypocrites will be in the
lowest pit of the hellfire!” (Quran 4:45)
Then Allah az zawajal, by the way, in the
Quran, this being even worse than animals,
this occurs in
surah al ara’af.
أهولنل ل ئ ن ك كنالسأننس
ن عا ل م بن س ل ه ه س م أن
ن ض مه ل
“la-ika kaal-anAAami bal hum adallu” (Quran
“They are like cattle, Nay! they are even
worse than cattle”. (Quran 7:179)
They are not even..
Even owls are better than them..
So , “summa radadna hu as fala safileen”
. Its very powerful powerful statement. SubhanAllah!
But then the last thing I want to share with
you in this context, in regards to this “summa
asfala safileen”. How do we reconcile this
with other ayaat in the Quran? On the one
hand you know,
Allah says we created the human being in the
best possible fashion. Then he says the human
created weak. The human being was created
with an urge to rush. The human being is full
of despair .
“Huloo’wa” , right?
ل إ ن ذا ن م من س ه ه ال من
ش مه ر ن ج ه زو ع عا
ن و ل إ ن ذا ن م من س ه ه الس
ن خيس ه ر ن منه و ع عاIzza massahu
alshsharru jazooAAan (Quran 17:20)
Wa-itha massahu alkhayru manooAAan (Quran
All these are problems of human beings. Weakness.
He is flawed in so many ways and on the other
hand he is such a great creation. How can
he be both at the same time? How many components
human being? Two?
When they are in balance, he is the best possible
When you deny one of them, what happens?
The weakness arises.
The desperation arises.
The despair comes up,
All the flaws of the human being manifest
when this ahsan-i-taqweem, in which Allah
created you, you
stop losing that side. You don’t address that
side of the human being.
That’s when all these problems occur.
Now we get to the conclusion of the surah
ل إلمنا المن ل ذي ن ن آ ن
منه وا ن و ن ع ل مله وا ال
من صالل ن حا ل ت ن فلن ه ه
س م أن س ج ر ر ن غيس ه ر ن
م س منهو ن ن
Illa allatheena amanoo waAAamiloo alssalihati
falahum ajrun ghayru mamnoonin (Quran 95:6)
In the beginning I said a modern person…
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